Economics effects of trade. There is a growing consensus in economics that trade is a positive-sum game. That is to say, trade is beneficial for both parties involved. This is particularly true for international trade, which involves the exchange of goods and services between countries. However, this consensus has been challenged by those who argue that there are negative-sum games in international trade. The argument against this can be summarized as follows: 1. A country that imports goods from another country is required to give up resources. 2. A country that exports goods is required to obtain resources. 3. Since there are limited resources, the country that imports goods must give up some of its resources to the country that exports the goods The main problem with this argument is that it assumes that resources are limited. It also assumes that the countries involved in trade are rational actors. However, there are many examples of countries that have engaged in trade with other countries despite the fact that they could have obtained more resources by using those resources to produce goods for themselves. The main problem with those countries is that they are not rational actors. They engage in trade with other countries because they are not interested in obtaining more resources, but instead are interested in obtaining more goods and services. Thus, the main counter-argument to the claim that trade is a positive-sum game is that trade is a positive-sum game for those countries that are not rational actors.